Implementation of Revised Lacey Act Provisions

The Lacey Act, first enacted in 1900, is a landmark piece of U.S. legislation originally aimed at curbing wildlife trafficking and poaching. Over the years, its scope has expanded significantly. The 2008 amendments, included in the Farm Bill, extended its provisions to cover a broad range of plant products. This change was largely driven by the need to address illegal logging and the associated trade, which poses serious environmental and economic threats worldwide.

The Act now requires importers to provide detailed declarations that specify the scientific name of the plant, the value of the importation, the quantity of the plant, and the country where the plant was harvested. This declaration process is critical for ensuring that only legally sourced plant materials enter the U.S. market, promoting sustainable and responsible trade practices.

Recent Updates: Phase VII

The latest revision, Phase VII, which was announced by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), extends the declaration requirement to all remaining plant product Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) codes that are not 100-percent composite materials. This phase will cover a wide array of items including industrial plants, medicinal plants, handbags, plywood, laminated wood, tools, matches with natural wood stems, products of natural cork, products of bamboo and rattan, and footwear, among others.

Implementation of Revised Lacey Act Provisions

A Notice by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service on 05/31/2024

This document has a comment period that ends in 60 days. (07/30/2024)

Implementation of Revised Lacey Act Provisions

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This document has a comment period that ends in 60 days. (07/30/2024)


The Lacey Act requires importers to declare the species and country of origin of all plant products being imported into the United States. This declaration is crucial in ensuring that only legally sourced materials enter the market, thereby promoting sustainable and legal trade practices. The Act’s implementation has been phased, with each phase introducing new requirements and expanding the range of products covered.

Importance of Compliance

By mandating transparency and accountability, the Lacey Act helps to combat illegal logging—a practice that contributes to deforestation, habitat destruction, and biodiversity loss. Illegal logging also has economic implications, undermining the legal timber industry and contributing to unfair competition. Moreover, profits from illegal logging have been linked to funding criminal activities and political instability in some regions.

Compliance Advice

  1. Understand Your Supply Chain: It is essential to have a clear understanding of where and how your plant products are sourced. This knowledge will facilitate accurate declarations.
  2. Stay Updated: Regularly check the APHIS website and other official resources for updates on the Lacey Act and ensure your procedures are aligned with the latest requirements.
  3. Use Electronic Systems: Take advantage of systems like the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) and the Lacey Act Web Governance System (LAWGS) to file declarations efficiently.

Implementation Phases

The Act’s implementation has been gradual, with new phases being introduced periodically. Each phase includes additional products under the declaration requirements. For instance, early phases focused on raw wood and timber products, while later phases have included a wider variety of manufactured goods such as furniture, paper products, and even certain musical instruments. The most recent phase, Phase VII, further expands the list to include additional plant-based products that were previously not covered.

Implications for the Industry

The Lacey Act’s reach is not limited to direct importers. It affects everyone in the supply chain, including manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. Businesses must ensure that their supply chains are transparent and compliant with the Act’s requirements. This often involves working closely with suppliers to verify the legality of the sourced materials and maintaining comprehensive records to support the declarations.


  1. Environmental Protection: The expanded coverage helps further curb illegal logging and trade, contributing to global efforts in forest conservation and biodiversity protection.
  2. Level Playing Field: By enforcing stringent declaration requirements, the Act helps ensure that compliant businesses are not undercut by competitors dealing in illegally sourced materials.


  1. Increased Administrative Burden: Importers will need to invest additional resources in compliance, including tracking supply chains and completing the necessary documentation.
  2. Potential Delays: The added requirements might slow down the import process, particularly for those unfamiliar with the new regulations.

Global Impact

The U.S. is a significant market for timber and plant products, and the Lacey Act has a ripple effect worldwide. By setting a high standard for legal trade, the Act encourages other countries to adopt similar measures, fostering a global movement towards sustainable forestry and trade practices. International cooperation and compliance are crucial for the Act’s success, as it relies on accurate information and legal frameworks from countries where the plants are harvested.

How John S. James Co. Can Help

The Lacey Act represents a significant step forward in promoting environmental stewardship and sustainable trade practices. For importers, understanding and complying with the Act is not just a legal obligation but also a commitment to ethical business practices. At John S. James Co., we are dedicated to helping you navigate these requirements seamlessly. Our team of experts is ready to assist with everything from supply chain verification to filing accurate declarations. Contact us today to ensure your business remains compliant and supports sustainable trade practices.

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